In June 1860 Thomas Huxley faced Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in a public debate at Oxford. This is generally held to mark a turning point in the influence of the Church in England, but it would take a long time for its power to wane significantly. In 1864 it was still possible to muster almost 11,000 clergymen to sign a declaration that the whole of the Bible was the word of God. Academics who accepted the new ideas had to be careful if they wanted to keep their jobs. Inconvenient fossils were now explained away as tests of faith planted deliberately by God. The idea was that the discoveries concerning fossils would affect only those with inadequate faith and thus weed them out from true believers. Alternatively, perhaps some species had become extinct after all, but all this meant was that God had made a few "providential adjustments" for his own reasons to his perfect creation. Or perhaps there had been several separate creations. Perhaps the present one was only the last in a series of them, and only this one was described in the Bible.