Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in the gonads and adrenal glands. A quick glance at their structures ( Figs. – ) shows how closely they resemble cholesterol (and one another) and therefore are lipids that are at home in membranes. They can readily move about laterally, undergo flip-flop and can pass through membranes until they encounter their appropriate steroid hormone receptor in the cytosol or nucleus [41,43] . In the cytosol, the steroid hormone may or may not be further enzymatically modified and can then bind to its receptor. The steroid hormone–receptor complex can immediately alter intracellular metabolic events by rapid, nongenomic mechanisms  . Alternatively, some steroid hormones bind to nuclear receptors  . The nuclear steroid hormone–receptor complex then binds to specific DNA sequences, inducing transcription of its target genes. This instigates slow-acting genomic responses. In either case, the hormone–receptor complexes cause changes in the target cell's basic physiology. With limited water-solubility, steroid hormones must be transported through the blood bound to specific carrier proteins.
I graduated high school in the eraly 1980’s at 6-5 and 210 lbs. A coach (who told me he experimented in the early 1970’s with steroids) warned me to a avoid steroids when I was in high school. I accepted a scholarship as a Def. Tackle. While at the university I eventually selected, I was introduced to a guy who played the same position, and was a freshman. I overheard the player , who was my height and build, that he just benched 300 lbs. I next saw him in August. He was benching way over 500 lbs (I think it was around 550 actually), and had gained about 50 lbs of pure muscle. I suspected him, and six other players on the defensive line of taking steroids. Five of those went pro for between two and nine years. Average was about seven years. They were HUGE. 275 – 290 lbs. Pure muscle. I transferred after my freshman year to a Div III school. Even there, steroids appeared to be rampant at many positions (offensive/defensive line; linebackers; defensive ends, deep backs, running backs and even receivers). Only one person was honest and told me he was taking steroids. he was a linebacker about 5-10, and 170 lbs as a freshman in December. The next year he was still 5-10, but 230 lbs in August. Another was a deep back at around 5-8, 150 lbs in December. In August he was about 210 lbs. Both were pure muscle. No fat. I find it interesting at the NFL Combine that I hear about how many times the can bench press a light weight, but not their max bench press. That might be too telling. I did mediocre as a college football player. I was very fast, with good upper body strength, but was considered light and weak when compared to others. I’ve often wondered how I would have done if there were no steroids.
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