There has some been confusion regarding testosterone replacement therapy’s role in PSA elevation or causing prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is initially androgen-dependent so testosterone therapy should not be used by men with prostatic cancer. This does not mean that it causes cancer. A huge pooled analysis of data from 18 studies (consisting of 3,886 men with prostate cancer and 6,438 controls), published in the February 6, 2008 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that blood levels of androgens and other sex hormones do not seem to be related to an increased risk for prostate cancer. In short, testosterone therapy does not appear to cause prostate cancer but it can make it worse.