For example, people undergoing dialysis face multiple challenges. First, they must cope with the loss of function of their kidneys. This is a devastating loss, which is often accompanied by a great deal of anxiety, depression, and grieving. Second, dialysis means adopting an entirely new lifestyle – one in which several days a week are devoted to treatment. Third, a majority of people in dialysis feel exhausted after the procedure, and cannot do anything strenuous the rest of the day. Fourth, they must accept strict dietary restrictions to maintain their health.
In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.