The relationships among caffeine, stress, and cortisol secretion will also be of interest to Dartmouth’s caffeinated masses. Repeated doses of caffeine over a single day result in markedly increased cortisol levels, regardless of the stressor involved or the sex of the individual. Although the extent of the link has not been fully elucidated, a positive relationship clearly exists between caffeine intake and cortisol release, and this relationship is exacerbated when other stressors are introduced. Thus, supplementing a lack of sleep with multiple cups of coffee or energy drinks actually reinforces the negative effects of the stress response and further undermines performance. The benefits of caffeine intake must be balanced with its implications for cortisol secretion. (18)
The safety of Novolog in patients with diabetes has been evaluated in several clinical studies. Novolog was compared with regular human insulin, and there was no difference in the frequency of adverse effects between the two treatments. The side effects that are commonly associated with insulin therapy include: allergic reactions, injection site irritation, rashes, and hypoglycemia .  The most common side effect is hypoglycemia. Long-term use of insulin, including Novolog®, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated injections or infusion. To reduce the risk of lipodystrophy, rotate the injection sites within the same region. Weight gain can also occur with the use of Novolog® and it has been attributed to anabolic effects of insulin and a decrease in glucosuria . Use of Novolog® has also been associated with sodium retention and edema .