Potent flavones and phytoecdysteroids

Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between dietary flavonoid intakes and cardiovascular diseases. Citrus fruits are the main winter fruits consumed in the Mediterranean diet, so they are the main source of dietary flavonoids. The possible beneficial effects are due, not only to the high amounts of vitamins and minerals, but also to the antioxidant properties of their flavonoids. Dietary flavonoids may help to supplement the body antioxidant defences against free radicals. These compounds’ possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. The present review summarizes the existing bibliography on biological and pharmacological studies of Citrus flavonoids, both in vitro and in vivo .

The decline in estrogen production that accompanies menopause places middle-aged women at risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis . The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) loss by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is generally used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis (59) . Whether the estrogenic properties of soy isoflavones might play any role in preserving bone health and preventing bone loss is unclear. To date, the results of observational and intervention studies examining the potential protection of soy isoflavones against BMD loss have been inconsistent. A recent review by Zheng et al. (60) discussed some potential factors relative to study design (., intervention duration, isoflavone dosages) and target populations (., ethnic and genetic differences, hormonal status) that could explain the conflicting study results.

Apigenin acts as a monoamine transporter activator, one of the few chemicals demonstrated to possess this property. [8] Apigenin is a weak ligand for central benzodiazepine receptors in vitro and exerts anxiolytic and slight sedative effects in an animal model . [9] Apigenin shows second-order positive modulatory activity at GABA A receptors. [10] [11] It has also effects on adenosine receptors [12] and is an acute antagonist at the NMDA receptors ( IC 50 = 10 μM). [11] In addition, like various other flavonoids, apigenin has been found to possess nanomolar affinity for the opioid receptors (K e = 410 nM, 970 nM, and 410 nM for the μ- , δ- , and κ-opioid receptors , respectively), acting as a non-selective antagonist of all three opioid receptors. [13]

Yet another constituent in cocoa alters mental state in pleasurable ways. Anandamide (whose name derives from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss), is a cannabinoid, a member of the same psychoactive substances found in cannabis. Anandamide binds to the same receptor sites in the brain as THC. And its effect? Anandamide produces a global feeling of euphoria. This compound may account for why some people become euphoric or blissed-out when they eat chocolate. The brain is a deep and mysterious organ, whose dark folds and gray crenellations are barely understood. But tickle the right neurons, and all heaven breaks loose.

Potent flavones and phytoecdysteroids

potent flavones and phytoecdysteroids

Yet another constituent in cocoa alters mental state in pleasurable ways. Anandamide (whose name derives from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss), is a cannabinoid, a member of the same psychoactive substances found in cannabis. Anandamide binds to the same receptor sites in the brain as THC. And its effect? Anandamide produces a global feeling of euphoria. This compound may account for why some people become euphoric or blissed-out when they eat chocolate. The brain is a deep and mysterious organ, whose dark folds and gray crenellations are barely understood. But tickle the right neurons, and all heaven breaks loose.

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